Editors: Stephen Chong, Stephanie Delaune and Deepak Garg

Authors, Title and AbstractPaperTalk

ABSTRACT. Passwords are still the most widespread means for authenticating users, even though they have been shown to create huge security problems. This motivated the use of additional authentication mechanisms yielding the so-called multi-factor authentication protocols. In this paper we define a detailed threat model for this kind of protocols: while in classical protocol analysis attackers control the communication network, we take into account that many communications are performed over TLS channels, that computers may be infected by different kinds of malwares, that attackers could perform phishing, and that humans may omit some actions. We formalize this model in the applied pi calculus and perform an extensive analysis and comparison of several widely used protocols --- variants of Google 2 step and FIDO's U2F. The analysis is completely automated, generating systematically all combinations of threat scenarios for each of the protocols and using the Proverif tool for automated protocol analysis. Our analysis highlights weaknesses and strengths of the different protocols, and allows us to suggest several small modifications of the existing protocols which are easy to implement, yet improve their security in several threat scenarios.

Jul 09 11:00

ABSTRACT. We present composition theorems for security protocols, to compose a key exchange protocol and a symmetric-key protocol that uses the exchanged key. Our results rely on the computational model of cryptography and are stated in the framework of the tool CryptoVerif. They support key exchange protocols that guarantee injective or non-injective authentication. They also allow random oracles shared between the composed protocols. To our knowledge, they are the first composition theorems for key exchange stated for a computational protocol verification tool, and also the first to allow such flexibility.

As a case study, we apply our composition theorems to a proof of TLS 1.3 Draft-18. This work fills a gap in a previous paper that informally claims a compositional proof of TLS 1.3, without formally justifying it.

Jul 09 11:30

ABSTRACT. Cryptographic channels aim to enable authenticated and confidential communication over the Internet. The general understanding seems to be that providing security in the sense of authenticated encryption for every (unidirectional) point-to-point link suffices to achieve this goal. As recently shown (in FSE17/ToSC17), however, even in the bidirectional case just requiring the two unidirectional links to provide security independently of each other does not lead to a secure solution in general. Informally, the reason for this is that the increased interaction in bidirectional communication may be exploited by an adversary. The same argument applies, a fortiori, in a multi-party setting where several users operate concurrently and the communication develops in more directions. In the cryptographic literature, however, the targeted goals for group communication in terms of channel security are still unexplored.

Applying the methodology of provable security, we fill this gap by (i) defining exact (game-based) authenticity and confidentiality goals for broadcast communication and (ii) showing how to achieve them. Importantly, our security notions also account for the causal dependencies between exchanged messages, thus naturally extending the bidirectional case where causal relationships are automatically captured by preserving the sending order. On the constructive side we propose a modular and yet efficient protocol that, assuming only reliable point-to-point links between users, leverages (non-cryptographic) broadcast and standard cryptographic primitives to a full-fledged broadcast channel that provably meets the security notions we put forth.

Jul 09 12:00

ABSTRACT. Attack trees are a well-recognized formalism for security modeling and analysis, but in this work we tackle a problem that has not yet been addressed by the security or formal methods community – namely guided design of attack trees. The objective of the framework presented in this paper is to support a security expert in the process of designing a pertinent attack tree for a given system. In contrast to most of existing approaches for attack trees, our framework contains an explicit model of the real system to be analyzed, formalized as a transition system that may contain quantitative information. The leaves of our attack trees are labeled with reachability goals in the transition system and the attack tree semantics is expressed in terms of traces of the system. The main novelty of the proposed framework is that we start with an attack tree which is not fully refined and by exhibiting paths in the system that are optimal with respect to the quantitative information, we are able to suggest to the security expert which parts of the tree contribute to optimal attacks and should therefore be developed further. Such useful parts of the tree are determined by solving a satisfiability problem in propositional logic.

Jul 09 15:00

ABSTRACT. We put forward the notion of self-guarding cryptographic protocols as a countermeasure to algorithm substitution attacks. Such self-guarding protocols can prevent undesirable leakage by subverted algorithms if one has the guarantee that the system has been properly working in an initialization phase. Unlike detection-based solutions they thus proactively thwart attacks, and unlike reverse firewalls they do not assume an online external party.

We present constructions of basic primitives for (public-key and private-key) encryption and for signatures. We also argue that the model captures attacks with malicious hardware tokens and show how to self-guard a PUF-based key exchange protocol.

Jul 10 09:00

ABSTRACT. The CMAC standard, when initially proposed by Iwata and Kurosawa as OMAC1, was equipped with a complex game-based security proof. Following recent advances in formal verification for game-based security proofs, we formalize a proof of unforgeability for CMAC in EasyCrypt. A side effects of this proof are improvements of EasyCrypt libraries. This formal proof obtains security bounds very similar to Iwata and Kurosawa’s for CMAC, but also proves secure a certain number of intermediate constructions of independent interest, including ECBC, FCBC and XCBC. This work represents one more step in the direction of obtaining a reliable set of independently verifiable evidence for the security of international cryptographic standards.

Jul 10 09:30

ABSTRACT. Security of cryptographic schemes is traditionally measured as the inability of resource-constraint adversaries to violate a desired security goal. The security argument usually relies on a sound design of the underlying components. Arguably, one of the most devastating failures of this approach can be observed when considering adversaries such as intelligence agencies that can influence the design, implementation, and standardization of cryptographic primitives. While the most prominent example of cryptographic backdoors is NIST's Dual_EC_DRBG, believing that such attempts have ended there is naive.

Security of many cryptographic tasks, such as digital signatures, pseudorandom generation, and password protection, crucially relies on the security of hash functions. In this work, we consider the question of how backdoors can endanger security of hash functions and, especially, if and how we can thwart such backdoors. We particularly focus on immunizing arbitrarily backdoored versions of HMAC (RFC 2104) and the hash-based key derivation function HKDF (RFC 5869), which are widely deployed in critical protocols such as TLS. We give evidence that the weak pseudorandomness property of the compression function in the hash function is in fact robust against backdooring. This positive result allows us to build a backdoor-resistant pseudorandom function, i.e., a variant of HMAC, and we show that HKDF can be immunized against backdoors at little cost. Unfortunately, we also argue that safe-guarding unkeyed hash functions against backdoors is presumably hard.

Jul 10 10:00

ABSTRACT. Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a general cryptographic technique that allows distrusting parties to compute a function of their individual inputs, while only revealing the output of the function. It has found applications in areas such as auctioning, email filtering, and secure teleconference.

Given its importance, it is crucial that the protocols are specified and implemented correctly. In the programming language community it has become good practice to use computer proof assistants to verify correctness proofs. In the field of cryptography, Easycrypt is the state of the art proof assistant. It provides an embedded language for probabilistic programming, together with a specialized logic, embedded into an ambient general purpose higher-order logic. It allows us to conveniently express cryptographic properties. Easycrypt has been used successfully on many applications, including public-key encryption, signatures, garbled circuits and differential privacy. Here we show for the first time that it can also be used to prove security for an n-party MPC protocol against a *malicious* adversary.

We formalize additive and replicated secret sharing schemes and apply them to Maurer's MPC protocol for secure addition and multiplication. Our method extends to general polynomial functions. We follow the insights from Easycrypt that security proofs can be often be reduced to proofs about program equivalence, a topic that is well understood in the verification of programming languages. In particular, we show that in the passive case the non-interference-based (NI) definition is equivalent to a standard game-based security definition. For the active case, we provide a new non-interference based alternative to the usual simulation-based cryptographic definition.

Jul 10 11:00

ABSTRACT. We give a language-based security treatment of domain-specific languages and compilers for secure multi-party computation, a cryptographic paradigm that enables collaborative computation over encrypted data. Computations are specified in a core imperative language, as if they were intended to be executed by a trusted-third party, and formally verified against an information-flow policy modelling (an upper bound to) their leakage. This allows non-experts to assess the impact of performance-driven authorized disclosure of intermediate values.

Specifications are then compiled into multi-party protocols. We formalize protocol security using (distributed) probabilistic information-flow and prove that compilation is security-preserving: protocols do not leak more than allowed by the source policy. The proof exploits a natural but previously missing correspondence between simulation-based cryptographic proofs and (composable) probabilistic non-interference.

Finally, we extend our framework to justify leakage cancelling, a domain-specific optimization that allows to, first, write an efficiently computable specification that fails to meet the allowed leakage upper-bound, and then apply a probabilistic pre-processing that brings the overall leakage to within the acceptable range.

Jul 10 11:30

ABSTRACT. We present the first computationally sound symbolic analysis of Yao's garbled circuit construction for secure two party computation. Our results include an extension of the symbolic language for cryptographic expressions from previous work on computationally sound symbolic analysis, and a soundness theorem for this extended language. We then demonstrate how the extended language can be used to formally specify not only the garbled circuit construction, but also the formal (symbolic) simulator required by the definition of security. The correctness of the simulation is proved in a purely syntactical way, within the symbolic model of cryptography, and then translated into a concrete computational indistinguishability statement via our general computational soundness theorem. We also implement our symbolic security framework and the garbling scheme in Haskell, and our experiment shows that the symbolic analysis performs well and can be done within several seconds even for large circuits that are useful for real world application.

Jul 10 12:00

ABSTRACT. We study the runtime verification (RV) complexity of hyperproperties expressed in the temporal logic HyperLTL as a means to inspect a system with respect to a set of security polices. The monitor analyzes trace logs organized by common prefixes that form a finite tree-shaped Kripke structure, or, by common prefixes and suffixes that form a finite acyclic Kripke structure. Unlike the RV techniques for trace-based languages, where monitors are often memoryless, to monitor a hyperproperty as the system execution(s) evolve, the monitor has to repeatedly check a growing Kripke structure that records the traces observed so far. This calls for a rigorous complexity analysis of RV for hyperproperties.

We show that for trees, the complexity in the size of the Kripke structure is L-complete independently of the number of quantifier alternations in the HyperLTL formula. For acyclic Kripke structures, the complexity is PSPACE-complete (in the level of the polynomial hierarchy that corresponds to the number of quantifier alternations). The combined complexity in the size of the Kripke structure and the length of the HyperLTL formula is PSPACE-complete for both trees and acyclic Kripke structures, and is as low as NC for the relevant case of trees and alternation- free HyperLTL formulas. Thus, the size and shape of the Kripke structure as well as the formula have significant impact on the efficiency of monitoring.

Jul 10 14:00

ABSTRACT. Scripts on webpages could steal sensitive user data. Much work has been done, both in modeling and implementation, to enforce information flow control (IFC) of webpages to mitigate such attacks. It is common to model scripts running in an IFC mechanism as a reactive program. However, this model does not account for dynamic script behavior such as user action simulation, new DOM element generation, or new event handler registration, which could leak information. In this paper, we investigate how to secure sensitive user information, while maintaining the flexibility of declassification, even in the presence of \emph{active attackers}---those who can perform the aforementioned actions. Our approach extends prior work on secure-multi-execution with stateful declassification by treating script-generated content specially to ensure that declassification policies cannot be manipulated by them. We use a knowledge-based progress-insensitive definition of security and prove that our enforcement mechanism is sound. We further prove that our enforcement mechanism is precise and has robust declassification (i.e. active attackers cannot learn more than their passive counterpart).

Jul 10 14:30

ABSTRACT. Many high-level security requirements are about the allowed flow of information in programs, but are difficult to make precise because they involve selective downgrading. Quite a few mutually incompatible and ad-hoc approaches have been proposed for specifying and enforcing downgrading policies. Prior surveys of these approaches have not provided a unifying technical framework. Notions from epistemic logic have emerged as a good approach to policy semantics but are considerably removed from well developed static and dynamic enforcement techniques. We develop a unified framework for expressing, giving meaning and enforcing information downgrading policies that subsumes many previously known approaches. It builds on commonly known and widely deployed concepts and techniques, especially static and dynamic assertion checking. These concepts should make information flow accessible and enable developers without special training to specify precise policies. The unified framework allows to directly compare different policy specification styles and enforce them by leveraging existing tools.

Jul 10 15:00

ABSTRACT. A developing field of interest for the distributed systems and applied cryptography communities is that of smart contracts: self-executing financial instruments that synchronize their state, often through a blockchain. One such smart contract system that has seen widespread practical adoption is Ethereum, which has grown to a market capacity of 100 billion USD and clears an excess of 500,000 daily transactions. Unfortunately, the rise of these technologies has been marred by a series of costly bugs and exploits. Increasingly, the Ethereum community has turned to formal methods and rigorous program analysis tools. This trend holds great promise due to the relative simplicity of smart contracts and bounded-time deterministic execution inherent to the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Here we present KEVM, an executable formal specification of the EVM's bytecode stack-based language built with the K Framework, designed to serve as a solid foundation for further formal analyses. We empirically evaluate the correctness and performance of KEVM using the official Ethereum test suite. To demonstrate the usability, several extensions of the semantics are presented and two different-language implementations of the ERC20 Standard Token are verified against the ERC20 specification. These results are encouraging for the executable semantics approach to language prototyping and specification.

Jul 10 16:00

ABSTRACT. We introduce a novel type system for enforcing secure information flow in an imperative language. Our work is motivated by the problem of statically checking potential information leakage in Android applications. To this end, we design a lightweight type system featuring Android permission model, where the permissions are statically assigned to applications and are used to enforce access control in the applications. We take inspiration from a type system by Banerjee and Naumann (BN) to allow security types to be dependent on the permissions of the applications. A novel feature of our type system is a typing rule for conditional branching induced by permission testing, which introduces a merging operator on security types, allowing more precise security policies to be enforced. The soundness of our type system is proved with respect to non-interference. In addition, a type inference algorithm is presented for the underlying security type system, by reducing the inference problem to a constraint solving problem in the lattice of security types.

Jul 11 09:00

ABSTRACT. Language-based information flow control (IFC) tracks dependencies within a program using sensitivity labels and prohibits public outputs from depending on secret inputs. In particular, literature has proposed several type systems for tracking these dependencies. On one extreme, there are fine-grained type systems (like Flow Caml) that track dependence at the level of individual values, by labeling all values individually. On the other extreme are coarse-grained type systems (like SLIO) that track dependence coarsely, by associating a single label with an entire computation context and not labeling all values individually.

In this paper, we show that, despite their glaring differences, both these styles are, in fact, equally expressive. To do this, we show a semantics- and type-preserving translation from a coarse-grained type system to a fine-grained one and vice-versa. The forward translation isn't surprising, but the backward translation is: It requires a construct to arbitrarily limit the scope of a context label in the coarse-grained type system (e.g., HLIO's ``toLabeled'' construct), as well as a small change to how labels are interpreted in coarse-grained type systems. Along the way, we show how to build logical relation models of both fine-grained and coarse-grained type systems (with full higher-order state). We use these relations to prove the two type systems and our translations sound.

Jul 11 09:30

ABSTRACT. Our goal is to certify absence of information leaks in multi-agent workflows, such as conference management systems like \textsc{EasyChair}. These workflows can be executed by any number of agents some of which may form coalitions against the system. Therefore, checking noninterference is a challenging problem.

Our paper offers two main contributions: First, a technique is provided to translate noninterference (in presence of various agent capabilities and declassification conditions) into universally quantified invariants of an instrumented new workflow program. Second, general techniques are developed for checking and inferring universally quantified inductive invariants for workflow programs. In particular, a large class of workflows is identified where inductiveness of invariants is decidable, as well as a smaller, still useful class of workflows where the weakest inductive universal invariant implying the desired invariant, is effectively computable. The new algorithms are implemented and applied to certify noninterference for workflows arising from conference management systems.

Jul 11 10:00

ABSTRACT. Machine learning algorithms, when applied to sensitive data, pose a distinct threat to privacy. A growing body of prior work demonstrates that models produced by these algorithms may leak specific private information in the training data to an attacker, either through the models' structure or their observable behavior. However, the underlying cause of this privacy risk is not well understood beyond a handful of anecdotal accounts that suggest overfitting and influence might play a role.

This paper examines the effect that overfitting and influence have on the ability of an attacker to learn information about the training data from machine learning models, either through training set membership inference or attribute inference attacks. Using both formal and empirical analyses, we illustrate a clear relationship between these factors and the privacy risk that arises in several popular machine learning algorithms. We find that overfitting is sufficient to allow an attacker to perform membership inference and, when the target attribute meets certain conditions about its influence, attribute inference attacks. Interestingly, our formal analysis also shows that overfitting is not necessary for these attacks and begins to shed light on what other factors may be in play. Finally, we explore the connection between membership inference and attribute inference, showing that there are deep connections between the two that lead to effective new attacks.

Jul 11 12:00

ABSTRACT. In random sample voting, only a randomly chosen subset of all eligible voters vote. We propose Alethea, the first random sample voting protocol that satisfies end-to-end verifiability and receipt-freeness. Our protocol makes explicit the distinction between the human voters and their devices. This allows us to make more fine-grained statements about the required capabilities and trust assumptions of each agent than is possible in previous work. Consequently, we can make more precise statements about the adversary models under which our protocol is secure.

Alethea is the first formally verified random sample voting protocol. This necessitates defining new security properties, in particular that the sample group is chosen randomly and that the chosen voters remain anonymous. We model the protocol and its properties in a symbolic model amenable to tool support. We verify most of the properties automatically and complete our analysis using traditional hand-written proofs when automatic analysis is either infeasible or when we desire a more fine-grained analysis than our symbolic abstractions allow.

Jul 11 16:00

ABSTRACT. We present a machine-checked security analysis of Belenios-- a deployed voting protocol which has already been used in more than 200 elections. Belenios extends Helios with an explicit registration authority to obtain eligibility guarantees.

We offer two main results. First, we build upon a recent framework for proving ballot privacy in EasyCrypt. Inspired by our application to Belenios, we adapt and extend the privacy security notions to account for protocols that include a registration phase. Our analysis identifies a trust assumption which is missing in the existing (pen and paper) analysis of Belenios: ballot privacy does not hold if the registrar misbehaves, even if, the role of the registrar is seemingly to provide eligibility guarantees. Second, we develop a novel framework for proving strong verifiability in EasyCrypt and apply it to Belenios. In the process, we clarify several aspects of the pen-and-paper proof, e.g. how to deal with revote policies.

Together, our results yield the first machine-checked analysis of both privacy and verifiability properties for a deployed electronic voting protocol. Last, but not least, we identify several issues regarding the applicability of existing definitions of privacy and verifiability to systems other than Helios. While we show how to adapt the definitions to the particular case of Belenios, our findings indicate a need for the development of less specific security notions for electronic voting protocols with registration authorities.

Jul 11 16:30

ABSTRACT. In this paper we describe symbolic side-channel analysis techniques for detecting and quantifying information leakage, given in terms of Shannon and Min Entropy. Measuring the precise leakage is challenging due to the randomness and noise often present in program executions and side-channel observations. We account for this noise by introducing additional (symbolic) program inputs which are interpreted {\em probabilistically}, using symbolic execution with {\em parameterized} model counting. We also explore an approximate sampling approach for increased scalability. In contrast to typical Monte Carlo techniques, our approach works by sampling symbolic paths, representing multiple concrete paths, and uses pruning to accelerate computation and guarantee convergence to the optimal results. The key novelty of our approach is to provide bounds on the leakage that are provably under- and over-approximating the real leakage. We implemented the techniques in the Symbolic PathFinder tool and we demonstrate them on Java programs.

Jul 12 09:30

ABSTRACT. Software-based countermeasures provide effective mitigation against side-channel attacks, often with minimal efficiency and deployment overheads. Their effectiveness is often amenable to rigorous analysis: specifically, several popular countermeasures can be formalized as information flow policies, and correct implementation of the countermeasures can be verified with state-of-the-art analysis and verification techniques. However, in absence of further justification, the guarantees only hold for the language (source, target, or intermediate representation) on which the analysis is performed.

We consider the problem of preserving side-channel countermeasures by compilation for cryptographic “constant-time”, a popular countermeasure against cache-based timing attacks. We present a general method, based on the notion of 2-simulation, for proving that a compilation pass preserves the constant-time countermeasure. Using the Coq proof assistant, we verify the correctness of our method and of several representative instantiations.

Jul 12 10:00

ABSTRACT. ProVerif is a popular tool for the fully automatic analysis of security protocols, offering very good support to detect flaws or prove security. One exception is the case of protocols with global states such as counters, tables, or more generally, memory cells. ProVerif fails to analyse such protocols, due to its internal abstraction.

Our key idea is to devise a generic transformation of the security properties queried to ProVerif. We prove the soundness of our transformation and implement it into a front-end GBVerif. Our experiments show that our front-end (combined with ProVerif) outperforms the few existing tools, both in terms of efficiency and protocol coverage. We successfully apply our tool to a dozen of protocols of the literature, yielding the first fully automatic proof of a security API and a payment protocol of the literature.

Jul 12 11:00

ABSTRACT. Exclusive-or (XOR) operations are common in cryptographic protocols, in particular in RFID protocols and electronic payment protocols. Although there are numerous applications, due to the inherent complexity of faithful models of XOR, there is only limited tool support for the verification of cryptographic protocols using XOR.

The Tamarin prover is a state-of-the-art verification tool for cryptographic protocols in the symbolic model. In this paper, we improve the underlying theory and the tool to deal with an equational theory modeling XOR operations. The XOR theory can be freely combined with all equational theories previously supported, including user-defined equational theories. This makes Tamarin the first tool to support simultaneously this large set of equational theories, protocols with global mutable state, an unbounded number of sessions, and complex security properties including observational equivalence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by analyzing several protocols that rely on XOR, in particular multiple RFID-protocols, where we can identify attacks as well as provide proofs.

Jul 12 11:30

ABSTRACT. There are several typing results that, for certain classes of protocols, show it is without loss of attacks to restrict the intruder to sending only well-typed messages. So far, all these typing results hold only for relatively simple protocols that do not keep a state beyond single sessions, excluding stateful protocols that, e.g., maintain long-term databases. Recently, several verification tools for stateful protocols have been proposed, e.g., Set-pi, AIF-omega, and SAPIC/Tamarin, but for none of these a typing result has been established. The main contribution of this paper is a typing result, for a large class of stateful protocols, based on a symbolic protocol model. We illustrate how to connect several formalisms for stateful protocols to this symbolic model. Finally, we discuss how the conditions of our typing result apply to existing protocols, or can be achieved by minor modifications.

Jul 12 12:00