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09:00-10:30 Session 83J
Invited talk: Experiments in Universal Logical Reasoning --- How to utilise ATPs and SMT solvers for the exploration of axiom systems for category theory in free logic

ABSTRACT. Classical higher-order logic, when utilized as a meta-logic in which various other (classical and non-classical) logics can be shallowly embedded, is suitable as a foundation for the development of a universal logical reasoning engine. Such an engine may be employed, as already envisioned by Leibniz, to support the rigorous formalisation and deep logical analysis of rational arguments on the computer.

In my talk I will exemplarily demonstrate how this approach can be utilised to implement "free logic" within the proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. SMT solvers and ATPs, which are integrated with Isabelle/HOL, can be then be used in this framework to (indirectly) automate free logic reasoning.

Free logic has many interesting applications, e.g. in natural language processing and as a logic of fiction. In mathematics, free logics are particularly suited in application domains, such as axiomatic category theory, where an adequate and elegant treatment of partiality and undefinedness is required.

In my talk I will summarise the results of an experiment with the above free logic reasoner, in which a series of mutually equivalent axiom systems for category theory has been systematically explored. As a side-effect of this work some (minor) issue in a prominent category theory textbook has been revealed.

The purpose of this work is not to claim any novel results in category theory, but to demonstrate an elegant way to automate reasoning in free logic, and to present illustrative experiments, which were (indirectly) supported by SMT solvers, ATPs and the model finder Nitpick.

Higher-Order SMT Solving

ABSTRACT. Satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers have throughout the years been able to cope with increasingly expressive formulas, from ground logics to full first-order logic modulo theories. Nevertheless, higher-order logic within SMT (HOSMT) is still little explored. In this preliminary report we discuss how to extend SMT solvers to natively support higher-order reasoning without compromising their performances on FO problems. We present a pragmatic extension to the cvc4 solver in which we generalize existing data structures and algorithms to HOSMT, thus leveraging the extensive research and implementation efforts dedicated to efficient FO solving. Our evaluation shows that the initial implementation does not add significant overhead to FO problems and its performance is on par with the encoding-based approach for HOSMT. We also discuss an alternative extension being implemented in veriT, in which new data structures and algorithms are being developed from scratch to best support HOSMT, thus avoiding the inherent difficulties of generalizing in a graceful way existing infrastructure not indented to higher-order reasoning.

10:30-11:00Coffee Break
11:00-12:30 Session 86K
Centralizing Equality Reasoning in MCSAT

ABSTRACT. MCSAT is an approach to SMT-solving that uses assignments of values to first-order variables in order to try and build a model of the input formula. When different theories are combined, as formalized in the CDSAT system, equalities between variables and terms play an important role, each theory module being required to understand equalities and which values are equal to which. This paper broaches the topic of how to reason about equalities in a centralized way, so that the theory reasoners can avoid replicating equality reasoning steps, and even benefit from a centralized implementation of equivalence classes of terms, which is based on a equality graph (Egraph). This paper sketches the design of a prototype based on this architecture.

Proofs in conflict-driven theory combination

ABSTRACT. Search-based satisfiability procedures try to construct a model of the input formula by simultaneously proposing candidate models and deriving new formulae implied by the input. When the formulae are satisfiable, these procedures generate a model as a witness. Dually, it is desirable to have a proof when the formulae are unsatisfiable. Conflict-driven procedures perform nontrivial inferences only when resolving conflicts between the formulae and assignments representing the candidate model. CDSAT (Conflict-Driven SATisfiability) is a method for conflict-driven reasoning in combinations of theories. It combines solvers for individual theories as theory modules within a solver for the union of the theories. In this paper we endow CDSAT with lemma learning and proof generation. For the latter, we present two techniques. The first one produces proof objects in memory: it assumes that all theory modules produce proof objects and it accommodates multiple proof formats. The second technique adapts the LCF approach to proofs from interactive theorem proving to conflict-driven SMT-solving and theory combination, by defining a small kernel of reasoning primitives that guarantees that CDSAT proofs are correct by construction.

Selfless Interpolation for Infinite-State Model Checking

ABSTRACT. We present a new method for interpolation in satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) that is aimed at applications in model-checking and invariant inference. The new method allows us to control the finite-convergence of interpolant sequences and, at the same time, provides expressive invariant-driven interpolants. It is based on a novel integration of model-driven quantifier elimination and abstract interpretation into existing SMT frameworks for interpolation. We have integrated the new approach into the Sally model checker and we include experimental evaluation showing its effectiveness.

12:30-14:00Lunch Break
14:00-15:30 Session 87K
Discovering Universally Quantified Solutions for Constrained Horn Clauses

ABSTRACT. The logic of Constrained Horn Clauses (CHC) provides an effective logical characterization of many problems in (software) verification. For example, CHC naturally capture inductive invariant discovery for sequential programs, compositional verification of concurrent and distributed systems, and verification of program equivalence. CHC is used as an intermediate representation by several state-of-the-art program analysis tools, including SeaHorn and JayHorn.

Existing CHC solvers, such as Spacer and Eldarica, are limited to discovering quantifier free solutions. This severely limits their applicability in software verification where memory is modelled by arrays and quantifiers are necessary to express program properties. In this work, we extend the IC3 framework (used by Spacer CHC solver) to discover quantified solutions to CHC. Our work addresses two major challenges: (a) finding a sufficient set of instantiations that guarantees progress, and (b) finding and generalizing quantified candidate solutions. We have implemented our algorithm in Z3 and describe experiments with it in the context of software verification of C programs.

What is the Point of an SMT-LIB Problem?
SPEAKER: Giles Reger

ABSTRACT. Many areas of automated reasoning are goal-oriented i.e the aim is to prove a goal from a set of axioms. Some methods, including the method of saturation-based reasoning explored in this paper, do not rely on having an explicit goal but can employ specific heuristics if one is present. SMT-LIB problems do not record a specific goal, meaning that we cannot straightforwardly employ goal-oriented proof search heuristics. In this work we examine methods for identifying the potential goal in an SMT-LIB problem and evaluate (using the Vampire theorem prover) whether this can help theorem provers based saturation-based proof search.

SMT-COMP 2018 Report
15:30-16:00Coffee Break
19:00-21:30 Workshops dinner at Keble College

Workshops dinner at Keble College. Drinks reception from 7pm, to be seated by 7:30 (pre-booking via FLoC registration system required; guests welcome).

Location: Keble College