Polynomial-Time Validation of QCDCL Certificates

Authors: Tomáš Peitl, Friedrich Slivovsky and Stefan Szeider

Paper Information

Title:Polynomial-Time Validation of QCDCL Certificates
Authors:Tomáš Peitl, Friedrich Slivovsky and Stefan Szeider
Proceedings:SAT Proceedings
Editors: Christoph M. Wintersteiger and Olaf Beyersdorff
Keywords:QBF, certificates, validation, Q-resolution

ABSTRACT. Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs) offer compact encodings of problems arising in areas such as verification and synthesis. These applications typically require that QBF solvers not only decide whether an input formula is true or false but also output a witnessing certificate. State-of-the-art QBF solvers based on Quantified Conflict-Driven Constraint Learning (QCDCL) can emit Q-resolution proofs, from which in turn certificates can be extracted. The correctness of a certificate generated in this way is validated by substituting it into the matrix of the input QBF and using a SAT solver to check that the resulting propositional formula (the validation formula) is unsatisfiable. This final check is often the most time-consuming part of the entire certification workflow.

We propose a new validation method that does not require a SAT call and provably runs in polynomial time. It uses the Q-resolution proof from which the given certificate was extracted to directly generate a (propositional) proof of the validation formula in the RUP format, which can be verified by a proof checker such as DRAT-trim. Experiments with a prototype implementation show a robust, albeit modest, increase in the number of successfully validated certificates compared to validation with a SAT solver.

Talk:Jul 10 16:30 (Session 58C: QBF II)